Douglas Fernández-Caraballo, Manuela Herrera Martínez, Danay Heredia Ruiz, Sonia Chaviano Machado, Emilio González Rodríguez
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Oxidative Imbalance And Risk Factors Involved In Premalignant And Malignant Lesions Of The Uterine Cervix

Objetive: to determine the indicators of oxidative stress and risk factors in patients with premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix.

Methods: A total of 150 women were studied: 40 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 40 with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 40 with stage IIB squamous cell carcinoma and 30 with negative cytology taken as a control, from the Gynecology Service of the ‚ÄúChiqui G√≥mez‚ÄĚ Polyclinic, and Oncology Service ‚ÄúCelestino Hern√°ndez‚ÄĚ Hospital of Santa Clara, aged between 19 and 70. The information on the risk factors was obtained through an individualized interview, and oxidative stress indicators were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. The comparison and association between groups was carried out with the support of the statistical program SPSS.

Results: The levels of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant decrease in both groups of squamous intraepithelial lesion, glutathione decreased significantly in the three groups of lesions, while malonildialdehyde significantly increased in the same groups with respect to the control. The risk factors with the highest incidence in the affected women were early sexual contact, the number of sexual partners, the use of oral contraceptives, exposure to environmental toxins and the habit of smoking.

Conclusions: There is an oxidative imbalance in the cases due to the decrease of the antioxidant enzymatic system, where the reduced levels of glutathione contribute to the increase of the lipid peroxidation. Risk factors may influence exposure to the papilloma virus and lead to the development of premalignant and malignant lesions in the cervix.

Danay Heredia-Ruiz, Manuela Herrera Martínez, Douglas Fernández Caraballo, Lázara Gladys López Ocampo, Luis Alfredo Estévez Cobo, Sergio Santana Rodríguez, Emilio González Rodríguez
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Efectos de la inyección neonatal de estreptozotocina sobre indicadores bioquímicos y de estrés oxidativo en ratas

Introducción: Debido a sus propiedades químicas, la estreptozotocina es uno de los agentes diabetogénicos más utilizados para generar modelos biológicos de diabetes, por lo que es necesario estudiar cuáles son sus efectos en el organismo del animal de laboratorio.

Objetivo: Evaluar, en un periodo de 90 d√≠as, los efectos de la inyecci√≥n neonatal de estreptozotocina en ratas Wistar sobre indicadores bioqu√≠micos y de estr√©s oxidativo en h√≠gado y ri√Ī√≥n.

M√©todos: La diabetes fue inducida neonatalmente por 100 mg de estreptozotocina en ratas Wistar. Se realizaron determinaciones de glucemia, insulina e indicadores de estr√©s oxidativos en h√≠gado y ri√Ī√≥n en cinco animales por grupo a los d√≠as 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 de nacidos.

Resultados: En todas las intervenciones, la glucemia e insulina mostraron diferencias significativas en el grupo-STZ respecto al control. El valor m√°ximo de hiperglucemia se observ√≥ al quinto d√≠a. La concentraci√≥n de nitratos y nitritos en h√≠gado fue mayor que en ri√Ī√≥n. En comparaci√≥n con el grupo control, en el tejido hep√°tico del grupo-STZ la concentraci√≥n de nitratos y nitritos result√≥ significativamente superior los d√≠as 10-20. En todas las intervenciones se detect√≥ consumo de glutati√≥n reducido en ambos √≥rganos. En el h√≠gado de las ratas STZ no se demostr√≥ da√Īo a l√≠pidos ni prote√≠nas; sin embargo, en ri√Ī√≥n se detect√≥ da√Īo significativo en ambas biomol√©culas al quinto d√≠a.

Conclusiones: Tanto la citotoxicidad de la estreptozotocina neonatal como las concentraciones de glucosa e insulina inducidas repercutieron negativamente sobre los indicadores de estrés oxidativo estudiados en tejido hepático y renal.

Leticia Bequer Mendoza, Maryoil Quintero, Tahiry Gómez, Isbey Guerra, José L. Molina, Cindy Freire, Sonia Clapés
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Oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. New approaches of Aneurysmatic diseases. State of Art

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are still the main cause of mortality all over the world.  Ischemic heart conditions are very well know, but aneurysmatic diseases. Endothelial damage seems to be the key in this illness. Objective. According to its importance, new risk factors and specifically biomarkers are needed. Methods: After looking for information in several databases such us: Medline- PubMed, Cochrane and Scielo, a review was done. Results: According literature, arterie’s conditions remain at the top ten cause of death of many countries such as Cuba were 2938 defunctions were registered during 2016. This condition importance is due to asymptomatic featuring so, when pain appears usually fatal complications just like dissection or rupture are presented. Through de major factors involved in this pathology aging, male sex, hypertension and left ventricular mass index ere described. Many biochemical parameters seem to be also coinvolved:  uric acid concentration, total reductive antioxidant capacity are some of them. Another proposed biomarkers are thioredoxin 1, peroxiredoxin 1 and iron. There is not still strong information about NOX4 or ROS, even though its role as a main actor in endothelial lesion through oxidative stress is very well known. Conclusion: Scientific community has realized about oxidative stress role according aneurysmatic diseases. Therefore, antioxidants could be an appropriate method for early diagnosis, follow-up evaluation and target therapy, but molecular studies are not still enough.

Roger Rodríguez Guzmán, Maria Giovanna Scioli, Federico D’Amico, Ela María Céspedes Miranda, Niurelkis Suárez Castillo, Pilar Guzmán Díaz
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Oxidative Stress-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction Contributes To Cardiovascular Disease

Objective: Oxidative stress is supposed to be involved in cardiovascular pathology through vascular cell damage. Identification of oxidative stress markers can represent a method for early diagnosis of vascular dysfunction. Biomolecular mechanisms of the vascular damage remain partially understood.

Material and Methods: In vitro and ex vivo studies were performed in order to investigate the role of oxidative stress and the potential preventive action of antioxidant agents against activation, proliferation and/or apoptosis of human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. The expression and activity of oxidative stress enzymes, reactive oxygen species and O2- radicals, including NADPH oxidase isoforms were evaluated, as well as leukocyte adhesion assay and the expression of cell adhesion molecules. In addition, histological and immunohistochemical analysis of human aorta tissue were performed.

Results: We detected higher levels of oxidative stress markers during endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment. In addition, oxidative stress was involved in the modulation of cell proliferation, vascular smooth cell phenotype, and cell apoptosis. Vascular and endothelial dysfunction by oxidative stress was mediated by NADPH oxidase 4 activity. The treatment with antioxidant agents such as ascorbic acid, NAC and NADPH oxidase 4 specific inhibitors prevented oxidative stress-induced vascular and endothelial dysfunction.

Conclusion: We demonstrated that oxidative stress is pivotal in vascular and endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, our data provide additional information about the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The identification of those oxidative stress markers in vascular cells will allow an early diagnosis and an appropriate antioxidant therapeutic approach.


 

Maria Giovanna Scioli, Federico D'Amico, Roger Rodríguez Guzmán, Ela María Céspedes Miranda, Augusto Orlandi
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Myeloperoxidase Activity, Lipid Profile And Thyroid Function In Patients Who Suffer From Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer¬īs disease increases its global incidence and prevalence, the WHO includes the disease among the main problems in public health today. Cuba is not apart from this reality. Biochemical markers pretends to enhance its early diagnosis. Objective: to determine myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), lipid profile and thyroid function, in patients who suffer from Alzheimer¬īs disease. Methods: it was a case and control analytic observational study, in patients from the Santa Clara polyclinic. The MPO activity, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, total triglycerides, VLDL, total T3 and T4, and TSH were determined in serum of both groups. Results: no association was found between MPO activity and the presence of the disease (p = 0.348).There was an almost absolute predominance of low levels of HDL-c, more evident in cases (0.43mmol/L), the levels of T3 tended to be close to the lower limit of the physiological range (1.46nmol/L), a relevant finding was a general presence of subclinical hypothyroidism (23.75 %), with no significant differences between groups. Conclusions: The Alzheimer¬īs disease keeps showing its increasing with age and it is more common in females. High levels of LDL-c and low of HDL-c are frequent in the elderly. Higher levels of HDL-c and T3, this last one into the physiological range, act as protectors against the disease. The subclinical hypothyroidism is present and remains hidden in many of the elder with Alzheimer or not. In a high number of patients, coexist Alzheimer¬īs disease and some diseases from the metabolic syndrome, as dyslipidemias.

Rafael Marcel Ranzola, Yania Ramos Rodríguez, Julio Junco Cuesta, Ariel Pérez Truffin, Jorge Cabrera Llano
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Oxidative Stress Indicators in Long-Lived Individuals Belonging to The Municipality of Santa Clara

Introduction: There are many oxidative stress indicators in long-lived individuals. Objective: To determine oxidative stress indicators in long-lived individuals. Materials and methods: 120 subjects were studied and two groups were formed: 50 individuals older than 85 years from nuclear families belonging to the municipality of Santa Clara and 70 adults under 50 years belonging to the same area taken as a control group. Were determined the antioxidant activity of the enzyme Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) as well as the serum concentrations of Reduced Glutathione (GSH) and Malonildialdehyde (MDA), as indicators of the state of the antioxidant defense and the existence of oxidative damage to lipids. Determinations were made with the use of spectrophotometric techniques establishing comparisons between groups through the statistical program SPSS for a level of significance of 95%. Results: The activity of the antioxidant enzyme SOD and the serum levels of MDA showed significant differences when comparing both study groups. In case of the SOD enzyme, the group of long-lived individuals showed a significant reduction in their activity when compared to the controls, while the serum levels of MDA were higher. The enzymatic activity CAT and the serum levels of GSH did not show significant differences between both groups of study. Conclusions: The decrease in the activity of the main antioxidant enzyme SOD accompanied by an increase in MDA levels may constitute evidence of an oxidative imbalance in individuals older than 85 years accompanied by an increase in damage to lipids.

Douglas Fernández Caraballo, Manuela Herrera Martínez, Danay Heredia-Ruiz, Sonia Chaviano Machado, Emilio González Rodríguez
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Myeloperoxidase Activity, Lipid Profile and Thyroid Function in Patients Who Suffer from Alzheimer¬īs DiseaseIntroduction: Alzheimer¬īs disease increases its global incidence and prevalence, the WHO includes the disease among the main problems in public health today. Cuba is not apart from this reality.¬† Biochemical markers pretend to enhance its early diagnosis. Objective: to determine myeloperoxidase activity, lipid profile and thyroid function, in patients who suffer from Alzheimer¬īs disease.¬† Materials and methods: a case and control analytic observational study was done, in patients from the Santa Clara polyclinic. The MPO activity, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, total triglycerides, VLDL, total T3 and T4, and TSH were determined in serum of both groups. Results: no association was found between myeloperoxidase activity and the presence of the disease (p = 0.348). There was an almost absolute predominance of low levels of HDL-c, more evident in cases (0.43 mmol/L), the levels of T3 tended to be close to the lower limit of¬† the physiological range (1.46 nmol/L), a relevant finding was a general presence of subclinical hypothyroidism (23.75 %), with no significant differences between groups.¬† Conclusions: The Alzheimer¬īs disease keeps showing its increasing with age and it is more common in females. High levels of LDL-c and low of HDL-c are frequent in the elderly. Higher levels of HDL-c and T3, this last one into the physiological range, act as protectors against the disease. The subclinical hypothyroidism is present and remains hidden in many of the elder with Alzheimer or not. In a high number of patients coexisted Alzheimer¬īs disease and some diseases from the metabolic syndrome, as dyslipidemias.
Rafael Marcel Ranzola, Yania Ramos Rodríguez, Julio Junco Cuesta, Ariel Pérez Trufin, Jorge Cabrera Llano, Vielka González Ferrer
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Sequential Variations of Renal Function Parameters and Oxidative Status after Surgical Ablation of 5/6 of Renal Mass in Wistar Rats

Introduction: In rats with subtotal nephrectomy occurs progressive changes on renal function, oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and antioxidant defenses. Objective: to evaluate the progressive changes on renal function, oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and antioxidant defenses in renal tissue after subtotal nephrectomy in rats.  Methods: The surgical ablation of 5/6 of the renal mass was performed by tying two branches of the left renal artery and removing the right kidney to 30 Wistar rats which were divided into three study groups and followed over a period of two, four, and six weeks. The remaining group of 10 rats was used as control. Functional remainder state of the renal mass was evaluated by measurement of the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) and effective Renal Plasmatic Flow (RPF) through renal plasmatic clearance methods. Weekly measurements of plasma creatinine and excretion of proteins, sodium, and potassium and urine osmolality were performed.  Oxidative status was assessed based on four markers in renal tissue homogenate. Malonildialdehyde (MDA) and Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were determined to assess oxidative damage to lipids and proteins respectively and measurement of reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) were used as indicators of antioxidant defense. One way ANOVA was conducted to analyze the sequential changes of the study variables and lineal correlation was used to analyze correlations between progressive functional changes and oxidative markers; considering a P value lower than 0.05 significant. The research was conducted in conformance with the Ethical Principles for the use of animals in research with approval by the Ethical Research Committee of the Institution. Results: Significant reduction of GFR was found two weeks after nephrectomy and continue reducing together with RPF up to week 6; when FF was also significantly low compared to control group. Plasma creatinine increased over threefold by week four in the experimental groups while significant increase of proteins excretion was noted by week two to continue rising  slightly up to week six. Sequential changes on sodium and potassium excretion were observed. Lipid peroxidation significantly increased at 4th week and continues this trend throughout the time.  Oxidized proteins were higher over the nephrectomized rats and significant change of AOPP was found by week two. SOD activity diminished initially, followed by a super induction at 6th week and GSH levels started to decrease markedly at 4th week after nephrectomy. Conclusions: the sequential increase of lipids and proteins oxidation together with the variations of antioxidant defenses on renal tissue suggest that oxidative stress increases in the remainder kidney as the renal function is progressively reducing.

Miriela Betancourt Valladares, José Luis Cadenas Freixas, Genny Dominguez Montero, María Josefina Méndez, Odalys Rodríguez Martín
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